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A cognitive bias is a universal bias in human reasoning. A Wikipedia page lists well over one hundred cognitive biases that have been discovered since their conception in 1972, by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman.
One of the most discussed cognitive biases is confirmation bias, which is our bias towards interpreting, seeking, and remembering information in a way that confirms, or helps to confirm, what we currently believe. Another is availability bias, which is our bias basing our judgements on whichever relevant information is most readily available to our thought processes.
The currently dominant explanation for cognitive biases is that they're each the product of a cognitive heuristic. However, they're actually simply manifestations of credulism and the certainty of belief.
- Cognitive bias - Wikipedia article